Appeals to emotion are deliberate manipulations and selective word choice in order to provoke an emotional reaction and to bypass rational thought.
Appeal to Flattery
Using a compliment to disarm and distract in order to slip in an unfounded claim which is accepted alongside the compliment. The compliments/flattery are a form of Trojan horse.
Example: “My intelligent followers will recognise that leaving the European Union is the only reasonable option.”
Appeal to Wishful Thinking
Stating that a claim is true or false simply because you hope that it is.
Example: “There must be life after death, otherwise it’s just emptiness.”
Appeal to Nature
Drawing parallels with nature to imply that your claim is correct.
Example: “Homosexuality is a sin, otherwise why don’t you see homosexual animals?” – this argument is wrong both rhetorically and factually.
Appeal to Fear
A claim which is made stronger by creating a sense of fear and terror.
Example: “If we don’t build a wall, soon Mexicans will steal the jobs of hardworking Americans.”
Appeal to Consequences
Similar to wishful thinking, this is where you argue that a belief is true or false mostly because you don’t want to believe the implications of the opposing belief.
Example: “The reports on weapons of mass destruction must be true, otherwise that would mean that we went to war with Iraq illegally.”
Appeal to Pity
This is quite common on TV talent shows. A person tries to use pity to influence or sway a person’s opinion.
Example: “He lost his wife 6 months ago, rejecting him would be wrong.”
Appeal to Ridicule
Manipulating, exaggerating or presenting an opponent’s argument to make it look ridiculous.
Example: “Beliving in God is just like believing in Santa Claus or the Easter Bunny.”
Appeal to Spite
Ignoring or dismissing a potentially valid argument due to a personal bias against the claimant.
Example: “Sally’s idea just won’t work, she’s too impractical.”