Category : Behaviour and Psychology

Behaviour and Psychology Persuasion and Influence

Being Persuasive: Advertising’s Foolproof Formula

Thanks to researchers like Robert B. Cialdini we have a great understanding of the principals that drive behaviour and how we can take advantage of these principles to become more persuasive. However, sometimes, you can get a little stuck in turning these principles into action. If you want to influence and persuade others, you need look no further than the advertising industry. Advertising executives make a living crafting influential and persuasive message to nudge their recipients in the right direction.

Advertisers and copywriters (persuasive writers) have followed the principles of AIDA for decades. AIDA is a great framework for building a persuasive message. AIDA stands for Attention, Interest, Desire and Action.

The model is robust, but based on my own experience as a marketer, is incomplete. The true model for persuasion looks more like this – Attention, Interest, Desire, Commitment, Action and Satisfaction. The examples given below will be from an advertising perspective, but I trust you are able to adapt these to other situations.


If you want your message to have an impact on your readers, it must first get their attention. Writers can do this with a hard-hitting headline or lead paragraph that hits the nail directly on the head or you can even begin your letter with a captivating question. For instance, “Do you want to cut your electricity cost by 45%?”

An appropriate headline for a campaign promoting a weight loss program might be: “Now, you can lose 15 pounds in 2 weeks without having to starve; and it’s easy and affordable!” This headline not only solves a problem, but also offers a quick and easy solution that keeps in mind the price-sensitive consumer.

Your reader will be interested only in knowing “What’s in it for me?” “Why should I invest my time in reading on?” If you let him know instantly, at the beginning of your letter, he’ll keep reading the rest of the material. And that’s half the battle won. In any case, he will rarely reach the third paragraph, so the impact has to be instant. The crux of the matter should be explained at the very beginning.

If you’re delivering a speech or sales pitch, these rules still apply, ensure that your opening statement cuts through the noise and grabs attention.


You must clasp the listener/reader’s interest by showing him why he needs your product or service. You have to create a want for your product or service. Let him know how his life will become easier with your product. Show him what he is missing by not even trying the product.

Here, you’re required to prove your trustworthiness. You can rest your case by using testimonials or case histories. You can provide the communication details of users who have benefited from your product. Always remember that you know everything there is to know about your product, so “stale news” to you can be “fresh news” to the other person.


Now you’ve got the reader’s attention and hooked his interest. Next, you’ve got to create desire. Tell the reader how exactly he’ll benefit from your product. Link the benefits to the reader’s daily life. Get him to realise how your product can benefit him, how convenient it is for him to get it, and how comfortable life will be for him afterwards. This part of the process should focus on emotions and wants.

Generalities are less convincing. Specific details are far more believable. For example, when you want to sell books on lowering employee theft – “By the end of this quarter, you could see your percentage of employee theft drop by more than 37%. Imagine the spectacular effect it will have on your bottom line!” If it is selling a weight loss program – “Within 3 weeks you will have lost 15 pounds. Imagine the compliments pouring in from your spouse. Think how gorgeous you will look in that new swimsuit!”


This is the part where they decide they are going to take action. Readers are aware that so far, their thoughts have been based on emotions, so to ensure conviction, use a few logical statements as; it will back-up with facts that taking action is the right decision. Reinforce the logical benefits of taking action, whether it is price, time or convenience.


What do you want the reader to do next? Send in a reply card? Order the product or service? Call in asking for more information? Schedule an appointment? Notify him accordingly. It is amazing how many sales letters do not inform the reader about the subsequent step. They consider that the reader is a mind reader. But usually this is not the case.

You’ve worked hard so far. You’ve gotten his attention, hooked his interest, created desire.  Isn’t it appropriate to ask for action? Don’t presume that your reader knows what to do next. As a support to getting the preferred action, you must always incorporate a reply card with your letter.

The P.S. is one component of a letter that at all times gets read. Use your P.S. to emphasize your most compelling benefit or restate your guarantee. Don’t waste it on merriment. Used wisely, it could be the final prod that tilts the buying decision in your favour. So be specific and give the final spurt


Satisfaction has more to do with the product itself than the advertising process, however the truth or claims of your writing have a huge impact on the end satisfaction of the customer. The goal of most advertising is to satisfy the customer so they become a repeat customer and give referrals to a product or service.

If you’re interested in learning more about persuasion I highly recommend:

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Behaviour and Psychology Perception

Perception and Reality: The Playground of the Mind

What is reality? What is real? What is truth?

For those of us who love a sense of certainty, I have bad news for you: The answers to all these questions are purely subjective.

If there is any truth, it is this: There is no single reality, no single truth, and that which you call “real” is purely subjective.  The reason for this simple; so simple that we often completely overlook it when pondering these questions.

The challenge to pinning down an answer to any of these questions has to do with how we experience the world. In fact, experience is all we have to go with as we live out our human existence on this earthly plane. When I use the word “experience,” I am speaking of how you experience the world, from moment to moment, via your sensory organs and thoughts.

Let me just get straight to the point with an audacious statement:

No one has ever experienced anything but experience itself

Rather than attempting to explain this, I offer you this simple exercise so that you can determine for yourself if what I say is true. Before doing this exercise, you do need to follow a simple rule: Rely on your immediate and direct experience. Do not refer to your past experience, the knowledge that you have gained, or what you have been taught. Do not analyse, judge, or rationalize anything that you experience – simply allow yourself to be informed by what you are experiencing in the moment.

  1. Sit down and make yourself comfortable.
  2. Find an object in the room that attracts your interest.
  3. Spend a few seconds viewing the object.
  4. Is the object you are viewing is separate from your sight, is there a point when seeing stops and the object begins, or are they inseparable.  If you are truly going by your direct experience, your answer has to be that they are inseparable.
  5. Now ask yourself; if seeing occurs from within you or from outside the body. In other words, where does the act of seeing originate from? Again, if you are going by your direct experience, the answer is obviously from within.
  6. Next, ask yourself “How do I know that I am seeing?” No matter how you respond to this question, ultimately your final answer has to be that you are aware or conscious of it. The only way something can exist is if we are aware of it. Without awareness, there can be no existence.
  7. Finally, ask yourself if awareness and the act of seeing are separate, or are they inseparable? The obvious answer is that they are inseparable.

From this simple exercise, we can summarise the following:

  • The object that is seen and the process of seeing are inseparable.
  • The act of seeing originates within us.
  • The act of seeing and the awareness that seeing is occurring are inseparable.

We can conclude that the object, the process of seeing, the person doing the observing, and awareness itself are not separate from each other; they are one in the same. This should not be surprising when we remember that all of existence, at the most fundamental level, is energy. At the quantum level, all that we view as having physicality becomes formless. What gives form to the formless is due to the nature of the mind, which creates concepts out of our experience. That which is formless does not register with the mind as the mind is conceptual; it represents experience conceptually.

At the deeper layers of what we call “reality,” the object you viewed is inseparable from you, as is all of experience. Through the limitations of our five senses, along with societal conditioning and the beliefs that each of us develop, we superimpose are impressions on our experience, leading to each individual having his or her own unique perspective.

The possibilities this understanding gives are endless, but here are two examples:

  • Enhance your creativity: By moving beyond conceptual thought, we can tap into sources of creativity that have been responsible for some of the greatest scientific discoveries of our times.
  • Emotional wellness: By learning to view life in a way that moves from a sense of separateness to one of connection, we experience greater happiness and compassion.

So how do we apply this information in a practical way? It is actually very simple. In fact, all religious traditions have taught these basic methods throughout the ages:

  • Learn to meditate or take time to be silent and still.
  • Allow five minutes per day of practicing non-judgement. Do not judge anything that happens. If you find this too difficult, shorten the amount of time. As you get more skillful, increase it.
  • Intentionally find things to be grateful for and focus on helping others. By removing our focus from ourselves and placing it on service to others, it gives us a break from our egocentric thinking.
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Office Politics Smart Thinking Strategic Thinking Think Like

How to Think Like Harvey Specter

(Originally Published: 31/08/2014, Updated: 03/03/2016)

If you’ve seen Suits, then you know why I’ve chosen to focus on Harvey Specter over Mike Ross. As impressive as Mike Ross’s photographic memory is, it’s not something that can be developed to the extent displayed on the show. Harvey Specter, on the other hand, has a whole bunch of skills and traits which can be learned.

The first thing you notice about Harvey is his incredible confidence and self-surety. He doesn’t apologise for being himself, he’s just Harvey and with that confidence he is able to make people questions their own thoughts and opinions, a valuable skill for a lawyer.

Confidence is quite simply being sure about something. Harvey is sure about himself, his abilities and his opinion – he’s all kinds of awesome and he knows it. Of course, this translates as cockiness in some situations, but most people around him just accept that’s who Harvey is. His confidence allows him to stay calm in troubling situations and Harvey only really shows his true feelings when he’s with Donna, Jessica or Mike, never in front of the opposition or his clients.

What allows Harvey to be so confident? Well, he is a great lawyer, but he has a number of skills at his disposal which make him feel at ease.

Reading People

Chiefly, he is skilled at reading people. I don’t mean the Sherlock Holmes, “I can tell what you had for breakfast last week because of the shoes you’re wearing.” but he is very good at finding doubt, conflict or any other little emotions in a person’s speech, facial expressions or general demeanor. Harvey always knows when someone is bluffing and knowing that makes it easy for him to call bluffs and to bluff himself.

If you know most of the time what other people are thinking and you have a good idea of how they will react, you’ll feel pretty confident in understanding how a situation will play out and you can plan for that.

Luckily, reading people is a skill that can be learned. Expert behaviour investigator, Vanessa Van Edwards, has built a fantastic online course The Secrets of Body Language which will give you a solid foundation in understanding and body language. I also advise picking up one of the following 2 books:

Combined with The Secrets of Body Language course and a little practice, you’ll soon be spotting deception left, right and centre and going all-in with Harvey at his next poker game. Harvey is an expert at watching people and getting inside their heads.

Once he knows what you’re thinking, Harvey will have a plan to use it against you. Time and again Harvey says:

I don’t play the odds, I play the man.

Harvey understands motivation and psychology well enough that he able to use any snippet of emotion or information they give away against them – good lawyers worry about facts, great lawyers worry about their opponents. Once you understand your opponents, you can start using their own actions and emotions against themselves.

Harvey’s skill also serves as a strong foundation for his confidence. Confidence is simply the state of being sure about something. Usually, this is surety about the outcome of an event, for example, an attractive man may be confident that his advances will be welcomed or well-received by the lady he is approaching. Or a marketer may be confident about the strategy he has chosen because he knows how it will play out. This surety comes from experience. When you get home, you’re pretty confident that your toilet will be in the bathroom and not on the roof. Harvey is sure of his skills because they have been honed and tested repeatedly over a long and successful career.


Harvey also has a very strategic mind, Jessica Pearson is referred to multiple times, by multiple characters as the chess master, but Harvey isn’t too far behind. Unless it gives him an advantage or based on a reaction allows him to learn something about his opposition, Harvey will never reveal his strategy or what he knows. He understands how each person thinks and operates and is strategic in who he shares information with – having a good idea of how they will use that information. He knows that sharing your silver bullet, just to wipe the smile off the face of your gloating opponent, while satisfying would be giving away your advantage and cutting yourself off at the knees.

Study of strategy has existed for thousands of years, with Sun Tzu’s The Art of War being one of the earliest written texts. There are a wealth of texts on the subject of strategy, the majority dealing with military, political and business applications. The following books are arguably the best modern books on the subject:

  • Good Strategy/Bad Strategy – While geared toward business situations, this is the greatest (non-textbook) book on strategy I’ve ever read – it looks at what strategy is and how to form them using a myriad of relevant examples.
  • Predatory Thinking – This book by adman Dave Trott teaches strategy through anecdotes and examples allowing you to see real world applications of strategy.
  • The 48 Laws Of Power –  A wonderful combination of political and military strategy, this best-seller by Robert Greene delves into strategy with a number of brilliant famous and lesser-known historical examples.
  • The 33 Strategies Of War – With the success of his first book, Greene penned another manual focusing purely on military strategy. He studied and observed as many facets of the discipline as he could find and grouped them together into 33 strategies.
  • Strategy: A History – At 767  pages, This book is the bible of strategy and gives a brilliant overview of the most prominent strategic theories in history, from David’s use of deception against Goliath – to the modern use of game theory in economics. 
  • It might also be an idea to do some reading up on office politics as the subject tends to explore how to deal with different types of people to get the results you want.

With this combination of qualities, its no wonder he is so successful. But his abilities are only a small part of why he is so respected and why Louis Litt, an excellent attorney himself, is always chasing Harvey’s approval. Why he may be cocky and sometimes viewed as emotionless, he has a certain outlook that gains him the admiration of everyone around him.

Behaviour and Principles

3 things make Harvey stand out straight away:


Harvey has a sense of style; he’s always clean, well-groomed and well-dressed. It doesn’t matter whether he’s at work, at the gym, or at home. Harvey understands that that appearance affects not only how other people see you, but can have a huge impact on your own confidence and mood.

People respond to how we’re dressed, so like it or not this is what you have to do.


Harvey is a smooth talker, he likes innuendo and is a master of sarcasm. Both his confidence and his appearance help him with this, but his flirtatious style is what wins clients and colleagues over. He always manages to tell incredibly cheesy jokes and they hit every time.


Harvey is ALWAYS calm, he always seems to have a plan and his calmness, when the shit hits the fan, inspires others and positions him as the leader everyone looks to. Louis Litt is always trying to impress Harvey, but his ego, short temper and lack of control always derail his efforts to emulate Harvey’s easy-going behaviour.

Harvey adept at combining all the above, his suave talk, his boldness and knowledge of the other person’s desires to be an excellent negotiator. Most of his initial on-screen negotiations tend to go awry – the show needs to be exciting after all. However the negotiations we don’t see tell us more than the ones we do – because they went so well that there’s no story to tell. Negotiation is a skill and can, of course, be learned from any of the hundreds of books on the subject.

But aside for his confidence, suaveness and eloquence, Harvey is admired most for always taking responsibility for his work and his team.

This is, unfortunately, a very rare quality and I’m sure we can all point to multiple people in our work and personal life, for whom the problem is never their fault. Not so for Mr. Specter.

No matter what the reason, if Harvey fails or messes things up or even if the mistake is not his own (I’m looking at you Mr. Ross), he always makes himself accountable.

When you screwed up that patent and Wyatt went apesh*t on me, I didn’t put that on you, I took it on myself, because that’s my job.

It doesn’t matter whether he’s talking to Jessica, a client or Donna, he holds his hands up and says: “I can fix this.” A person who is able to hold their hands up and say, “I made a mistake, here is my plan to fix it.” is a diamond to have in the workplace. All too often people spend their energy pointing fingers and trying to shift the blame (e.g. Louis Litt) – Harvey spends his energy trying to fix the problem.

While he may seem arrogant and heartless, Harvey Specter is in fact quite an emotional person, but he’s able to channel those emotions into his work; happiness boosts his confidence and his people-skills, anger gives him energy and stress sharpens his focus.

As the series has gone on, it’s clear that even with Mike Ross’s incredible memory and empathy, he is becoming a better lawyer by mimicking and learning from Harvey. By learning to read people, getting a greater understanding of strategy and taking care of your appearance and managing you behaviour, you too could see similar results to Harvey Specter and Mike Ross.

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Anthropology Behaviour and Psychology

Take the Second Left – Men Are Better at Navigating

It’s a long-held belief, particularly among men, that they are better navigators. Thanks to researchers at Norwegian University of Science and Technology’s Department of Neuroscience, it’s been proven to be true.

The study found that during the navigation tasks they set, Carl Pintzka said of men:

They quite simply got to their destination faster.

The study was comprised of 18 men and 18 women and were given the task of navigating their way around a virtual maze. Throughout, they were also instructed to find specific objects or reach a certain destination.

The task used 3D goggles and a joystick to allow the participants to navigate the maze. They were given an hour to learn it’s layout before the test began. Once it began the participants were presented with 45 tasks, each of which they had 30 seconds to complete. An example task was “to find the yellow car” from different starting points.

Pintzka found that men were able to solve 50% more of the tasks than the woman and that they used a general sense of cardinal directions (North, East, South and West) to find their way.

Women tend to navigate based on landmarks and fixed locations, for example “go past the post office and take the second left until you reach the library and then continue on until you see…”. This method of navigating breaks down if the post office is no longer there or if a road is blocked.

The men’s general directions were much more flexible as they weren’t based on fixed routes. If they encounter a blocked road, they’ll just go around it, continuing in the same general direction. Interestingly, when the women were given a testosterone boosting substance, their ability to orient themselves improved.

But, except for some minor differences in size, men and women’s brains are physically identical – so what is the cause of this difference?

While our brains may be the same, men and women use different areas of the brain when completing the same tasks.

There are evolutionary reasons for our differing abilities. Before the advent of farming, men were hunters. They would track animals over the course of days and would end up 30+ miles from home. Men developed a  keen sense of direction so that they could find their way home after such long journeys.

Women were gatherers and incredibly skilled at finding things in a close vicinity. This is why women can find something in the house in seconds that may take a man 20 or 30 minutes to find.

Pintzka summarised this as:

In simple terms, women are faster at finding things in the house, and men are faster at finding the house.

Past studies have also shown that men are better at focusing intently on a single task, while women are much more skilled at multi-tasking. This increased ability to focus on a single task could have been a contributing factor to Pintzka’s findings and to the men’s success. Dr Ragini Verma of University of Pennsylvania performed MRI scans of 949 men and women and found:

The research shows that if women and men are given a task that involves both logical thinking and intuitive thinking, women will do it better – they are better at connecting the left and the right sides of the brain. If you have an instant action to be performed and you need to do it now, male brains are more attuned to it because the front-back action is more intensely connected. The intense activity in the cerebellum means men would be better at learning to ride a bike, learning to swim, reading maps.

The same study also found women’s brains are better designed to socialise in busy situations as the connections in the brain boosted their ability to remember names, faces and information about the people they had met.

I’m always fascinated by these types of studies that highlight the differences between the way men and women think and behave. We should both acknowledge and embrace the differences between men and women, but without encouraging assumption or discrimination.

Creating standardised situations, such as schooling, which are based on the idea that men and women think in the same way is ineffective and reduces potential performance.

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Behaviour and Psychology Leadership and Power

The 8 Sources of Power

(Originally Published: 07/08/2015, Updated: 29/10/2016)

Power is the outward expression of inward strength and confidence in a situation.

Power comes from many places, what I like to call the 8 Sources of Power:

Power of position comes from a position you hold. Positions of power can be either appointed, elected or created by oneself.

An appointed position generally means that others are contractually or procedurally obliged to carry out your instructions and follow your lead. The easiest example for this would be a CEO or other manager. While these positions tend to be earned through a combination of the other 7 sources, there are many individuals in positions of power who lack the qualities that would normally earn them such a place. This undermines power as many people will only show deference to the position, not the person holding it. True power would be demonstrated by the former manager or leader who still holds influence without wielding any official authority.

Elected positions have a sturdier power base and aren’t as vulnerable to lack of deservedness. It’s difficult for people to argue when they were the ones that gave you the position. Being elected means you were chosen to have authority, whether that’s the leader of a country, company board or a committee. Regardless of politics and other structures, if you were elected into power, it’s usually because you deserved it.

Lastly, power can come from a position you have created yourself. Identifying a niche within your company or department and owning that discipline or skill e.g. a deep knowledge of the companies policies, an understanding of company politics or even being the best with Microsoft Excel. If you create a demand for a skill you have, you have slightly more influence than before.

Power of personality comes from your strength of character, often labelled as charisma. Your personality draws people to you and the way you conduct yourself inspires.

Charisma is a difficult quality to define, similarly to how it’s hard to emulate being cool. There are things that charismatic people have in common however.

The first is that they often radiate joy and excitement. They are passionate about what they believe in and it triggers strong emotions in the people around them. There passion is rooted in a sense of confidence – they understand their world and their place in it. Charismatic people know their strengths are confident in their abilities and they inspire other to have that same confidence in themselves.

This passion and confidence becomes something altogether different – conviction. They have strong beliefs and they are consistent in their actions and are commitment to their cause. This commitment is felt by others who yearn to follow.

A key part of charisma, is the ability to tell a storyteller. They can get to the emotional core of almost any subject and make it deeply relate to their audience and the actions they want to inspire. This is made up by their tone of voice, their rhythm and the way they make eye contact.

Lastly, they can connect with you on an emotional level. A charismatic person can be in a room of hundreds, but when they address an individual, they make them feel special, valued and interesting. Someone giving us this level of personal attention can be addicting in a world of me, me, me.

More than anything the power of personality is the holy grail for politicians – if people like and respect you, you can inspire loyalty and lead a group of people in a direction of your choosing.

Power of ideas is evident in silicone valley and in creative agencies. Your creativity can inspire solutions to problems that baffle others. Coming up with ideas is actually a pretty straightforward process and we all have the ability to generate some pretty cracking ones. In this scenario, lateral thinking is key.

The term lateral thinking was introduced by Edward De Bono in 1967 and refers to taking an indirect approach to solving problems by side-stepping standard logic. When job descriptions say that the ideal candidate can “think outside the box”, it’s lateral thinking ability there referring to.

Solutions produced by lateral thinking tend to seem fairly obvious in hindsight, but aren’t visible when thinking about the problem. Because of the nature approach, lateral thinking tends to highlight other problems which might be unnoticed otherwise.

To think laterally, you’ll have to look at the problem from a different viewpoint. It’s all too easy to think rigidly when your inside a situation and ignore patterns and evidence which would lead to a certain cause or solution.

Einstein summarised this very well when he said “problems cannot be solved by thinking within the framework within which the problems were created.” You have to go outside to do so. The massively overused term, thinking outside the box applies well to lateral thinking.

However, it doesn’t stop there. Ideas without action are useless things and for your ideas to have value, you have to be very skilled at implementing them. No matter your arena, if you can come up with creative solutions to problems and then carry them out you’ll have your colleagues and often your superiors coming to you to help make things happen.

Power of intellect is the expression of your analytical ability and your capacity to grasp facts and put them in order. Analysis is simply being able to take a look at a situation or set of facts and using common sense, logic and your existing knowledge, come up with a detailed explanation of the situation – usually with suggestions on how to improve.

This is luckily something which can be learned. You can become a skilled analyst by learning about logic and the processes logicians follow to come to conclusions. But if you really want to take it to the next level and stand out, you’ll want to learn a variety of models, which serve the dual purpose of helping you to organise and process the information, but present it in a recognisable and easy to follow format. Using such models also inspire trust in your results and your methods.

Combined with the power of ideas, you could carve yourself out a niche as consigliere.

Power to communicate is your ability to get across an idea or message in a way that resonates with people, both individually and in groups. The ability to communicate well is a precursor to being able to influence and persuade. This skill ties in very much with charisma and the power of personality, but they’re not always linked.

Imagine you have 2 politicians, one who is charismatic and likeable, but not great at sharing his beliefs, policies and messages. The second politician, while not as charismatic or instantly likeable, is a great communicator and is able to share his message with millions of people in a way that they can understand. This person stands a much better chance at being elected.

Communication in this way relies very much on knowing your audience, knowing what is important to them and knowing exactly how they like to communicate. There’s no use sending an email to a person that prefers face to face interaction or calling someone who’d just prefer you sent an email. This understanding of people can come from a knowledge of a person’s history, body language and personality – all of which can be learned.

Power to invest either money or resources is another form of actual power. It’s also a very visible form of power something that can be measured in numbers i.e. the Forbes rich list. In the context we’re likely to be looking at, it deals with the ability to invest money or resources into an idea, person or department.

Money or resources can be used to solve problems that influence alone couldn’t manage. Investing in a person’s ideas, projects or even development can not only gain you loyal friends and supporters, but can provide you with better resources (skilled people).

Investing in ideas or companies, especially if successful can bring profit and therefore increase your ability to invest, and thus your power.

Power to reward people financially or through recognition. Part of this power is also the freedom to remove people from situations where they are not succeeding. Most managers, if they have authority over their own staff, have this power. They are able to hire and fire, award bonuses or pay rises or even discipline through suspensions and other means.

Unfortunately, in most workplaces, the respect and authority we assign to people is usually thanks to that person’s ability to discipline or fire us. In this respect, the power the manager has is based on fear.

Conversely, a manager has the power to reward people who show the behaviours and results that the manager values. This is linked to the power to invest as managers are able to choose which projects to invest the budget in.

Power to manipulate is the most well-known form of power as it’s depicted in TV shows such as A House of Cards and Game of Thrones constantly. Manipulation is powered by a person’s ability to communicate their ideas well, though they may be fabrications or twisting of the truth. At it’s heart, manipulation plays on fear – fear that someone else is trying to damage your position, fear of failure, fear of physical attack, fear of losing a job etc. Blackmail, threats and other psychological manipulation are also powered by fear.

The most common form of manipulation in the workplace is through positive and negative reinforcement, usually through rewarding or punishment of certain behaviours. Manipulation relies on a number of the qualities listed above such as the power to communicate and often the power to invest/reward.

As we’ve established power can come from many places and if you take a look at some of your favourite or least favourite leaders, they’ll all some combination of the above qualities. The lucky thing is that the majority of them can be learned. If you’re interesting in reading more about power and influence take a look at The 48 Laws Of Power and Influence: The Psychology of Persuasion.

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